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December 25, 2023 Devops, Technology 0 Comments

Essential Linux commands every developer should master

ls – List Files and Directories: List the contents of a directory.
Example: ls -l

cd – Change Directory: Navigate to a different directory.
Example: cd /home/user/documents

pwd – Print Working Directory: Display the current directory’s full path.
Example: pwd

mkdir – Make Directory: Create a new directory.
Example: mkdir your_folder_name

rm – Remove: Delete files or directory.
Example: rm yourfile.txt

cp – Copy: Copy files or directories.
Example: cp file.txt /destination_folder

mv – Move: Move files or directories.
Example: mv file.txt /your_new_location

touch – Create Empty File: Create a new empty file.
Example: touch new_file.txt

cat – Concatenate and Display: View the content of a file.
Example: cat file.txt

nano – Text Editor: Open a text file for editing.
Example: nano file.txt

grep – Search Text: Search for text patterns in files.
Example: grep "pattern" file.txt

find – Search Files and Directories: Search for files and directories.
Example: find /path/to/search -name "file_name"

chmod – Change File Permissions: Modify file permissions.
Example: chmod 755 file.sh

chown – Change Ownership: Change the owner and group of a file or directory.
Example: chown user:group file.txt

ps – Process Status: Display running processes.
Example: ps aux

top – Monitor System Activity: Monitor system processes in real-time.
Example: top

kill – Terminate Processes: Terminate a process using its ID.
Example: kill PID

wget – Download Files: Download files from the internet.
Example: wget https://example.com/file.zip

curl – Transfer Data with URLs: Transfer data to or from a server.
Example: curl -O https://example.com/file.txt

tar – Archive and Extract: Create or extract compressed archive files.
Example: tar -czvf archive.tar.gz folder

ssh – Secure Shell: Connect to a remote server securely.
Example: ssh user@remote_host

scp – Securely Copy Files: Copy files between local and remote systems using SSH.
Example: scp file.txt user@remote_host:/path

rsync – Remote Sync: Synchronize files and directories between systems.
Example: rsync -avz local_folder/ user@remote_host:remote_folder/

df – Disk Free Space: Display disk space usage.
Example: df -h

du – Disk Usage: Show the size of files and directories.
Example: du -sh /path/to/directory

ifconfig – Network Configuration: Display or configure network interfaces (deprecated, use ip).
Example: ifconfig

ip – IP Configuration: Manage IP addresses and network settings.
Example: ip addr show

netstat – Network Statistics: Display network connections and statistics (deprecated, use ss).
Example: netstat -tuln

systemctl – System Control: Manage system services using systems.
Example: systemctl start service_name

journalctl – Systemd Journal: View system logs using systemd’s journal.
Example: journalctl -u service_name

cron – Schedule Tasks: Manage scheduled tasks.
Example: crontab -e

at – Execute Commands Later: Run commands at a specified time.
Example: echo "command" | at 15:30

ping – Network Connectivity: Check network connectivity to a host.
Example: ping google.com

traceroute – Trace Route: Trace the route packets take to reach a host.
Example: traceroute google.com

curl – Check Website Connectivity: Check if a website is up.
Example: curl -Is https://example.com | head -n 1

dig – Domain Information Groper: Retrieve DNS information for a domain.
Example: dig example.com

hostname – Display or Set Hostname: Display or change the system’s hostname.
Example: hostname

who – Display Users: Display currently logged-in users.
Example: who

useradd – Add User: Create a new user account.
Example: useradd newuser

usermod – Modify User: Modify user account properties.
Example: usermod -aG groupname username

passwd – Change Password: Change user password.
Example: passwd username

sudo – Superuser Do: Execute commands as the superuser.
Example: sudo command

lsof – List Open Files: List open files and processes using them.
Example: lsof -i :port

nc – Netcat: Networking utility to read and write data across network connections.
Example: echo "Hello" | nc host port

scp – Secure Copy Between Hosts: Copy files securely between hosts.
Example: scp file.txt user@remote_host:/path

sed – Stream Editor: Text manipulation using regex.
Example: sed 's/old/new/g' file.txt

awk – Text Processing: Pattern scanning and text processing.
Example: awk '{print $2}' file.txt

cut – Text Column Extraction: Extract specific columns from text.
Example: cut -d"," -f2 file.csv

sort – Sort Lines: Sort lines of text files.
Example: sort file.txt

diff – File Comparison: Compare two files and show differences.
Example: diff file1.txt file2.txt

wc – Count the word characters
Example: wc -l

Website Content Management System

opensource cmsSo, Do you want to make your own website? Great, for this you need to aware of some Internet technology terms and programming languages. Content Management System (CMS) is easy tool to develop or maintain your website. So now you must be thinking what is a Content management system? How we can install it? which programming language it uses? and many more questions. In this blog I have tried to explain the concept of CMS and some popular CMS in opensource technology.

So what is a Content Management System? Wikipedia definition is something like this:

A content management system (CMS) is the collection of procedures used to manage work flow in a collaborative environment. These procedures can be manual or computer-based. The procedures are designed to do the following:

What is an Open source software ?

what is opensourceOpen-source software (OSS) is computer software for which the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that meets the Open Source Definition or that is in the public domain.This permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified forms. It is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner.

Open source doesn’t just mean access to the source code.
The distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the following criteria:
1. Free Redistribution
The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale.

December 1, 2011 Technology 0 Comments

Now Facebook increases status update to 63,206 characters or less

Today, the social network has bumped it up again, this time by a 12-fold increase to 60,000 characters. Yes!!! Facebook has increased its status update character limit from 5,000 to 63206 characters.

Facebook update character limits have been expanding almost as rapidly as the social network itself. Until March 2009, the limit was barely bigger than Twitter’s, at 160 characters. Then 420 characters marked the end of your post’s potential. This summer, it jumped from 500 to 5,000, and now the limit has hit the stratosphere.

As you can see in the screenshot below, this is a huge character count; I honestly don’t see why you would ever want to write such a long status update.


Facebook status message character increase graph

(Image courtesy Mashable.com)

October 23, 2011 Personal, Technology 2 Comments

My Facebook new timeline profile

Recently Facebook announced a host of new features in what was described by industry observers as the biggest shakeup in Facebook’s history. Most of these changes are obviously due to the emerging and growing threat from Google Plus, and one of the features that Mark Zuckerberg introduced was the radical redesign of the profile page. It’s called the “timeline” and it could prove to be the most controversial change of them all.

As the name “timeline” implies, you can move the slider back over every year you have had the Facebook profile and see all your old status messages. I found it fascinating seeing what I posted years ago and laughing at some of the bad jokes that I posted (and some of the good ones too).

My new Facebook timeline profile

Sandykadam facebook timeline profile

Sandykadam facebook timeline profile

On the whole, the timeline profile is an interesting development but it is a radical departure from what the profile used to be like, so I am sure there will be lots of people who will vehemently hate the design. But I would say give it a chance.

Not everyone has the timeline design yet and you may have to wait up to several weeks for it. However, if you’re curious about how it looks on your profile and you want to try it out now, then here is how to do it.

Please note however that your new timeline page will only be viewable to those who also have the timeline design page. Those who still have the old page design will continue to see your old page design until the timeline feature goes mainstream for everyone.

New update as on 7th Dec 2011 Facebook Timeline profile is now public.